Boundary Stones

“Field mark” means the mark placed at the bends and junctions on the boundaries of survey fields and sub-divisions and includes marks placed on village boundary, Khandom boundary and other offset stones. “Theodolite mark” means the mark placed at the stations where a theodolite is set up and observations made.

Specifications of Survey marks

Survey marks shall ordinarily be stones of durable quality, namely granite stones of the following descriptions and dimensions

    1. Field stones

      Granite stones of durable quality roughly squared of approximate dimension 60 cm x 15 cm x a5 cm with a plummet hole, 1 cm deep cut on the side.

    2. Theodolite stones

Granite stones of durable quality roughly squared of approximate dimension measuring 60cm x 15 cm x 15 cm with a plummet hole, 1cm deep cut on the top and a coconut tree mark 1 cm deep cut on one side G.O) p) 367/76/RD , dated 3rd March 1976).
The survey marks which have been duly planted under proper authority before the commencement of these rules shall be deemed to be of the prescribed description and size.

    1. Symbol for identification

The following symbols shall also be cut on theodolite and field stones to facilitate identifications.

      1. On a theodolite stone at a village trijunction, a triangle one cm deep enclosing the plummet hole.
      2. On a theodolite stone at any other point on the village boundary, two parallel lines one cm, deep one on either side of the plummet hole and parallel to the boundary line.
      3. On a theodolite stone on a khandom boundary, a circle one cm, deep enclosing the plummet hole.
      4. On all other theodolite stones a plummet hole one cm, deep on the top.
      5. On a field stone on the boundary of a village plus mark (+) one cm deep on the top.
      6. All survey marks erected during town survey shall have in addition to the above marks a square of 7 cm side cut one cm, deep on the top.
    1. Symbols on Survey marks on frontier boundaries
      1. In the case of survey marks on the frontier boundaries, symbols of the neighboring States shall also be cut on the respective sides.
      2. The stones erected by other Departments on boundaries of lands may be recognized as survey marks if the proper symbols as provided under rules 3 and 4 are cut on them and if their specifications are not below those described under rule.
    2. Survey marks on rocks

When stones cannot be planted owing to the position of a survey mark falling on a rock, the survey mark shall be cut on the rock. Squares of 20 cm side or 15 cm side as the case may be shall be chiseled on the rock, and the coconut tree mark shall be cut adjoining the square. The distinguishing symbols mentioned in rule 4 shall also be cut inside the square according to the nature of the boundary.

    1. Survey marks in special tracts
      1. In low lying lands and backwaters, the sizes of the theodolite stones shall vary from 150 cm x 20 cm x 20 cm to 250 cm x 20 cm x 20 cm and field stones shall be of dimensions varying from 100 cm x 15 cm x 15 cm. to 200 cm x 15 cm x 15 cm according to the needs of the locality.
      2. When water in low lying lands and backwaters is too deep even for stones of the sizes mentioned in sub-rule (1) hard and stout coconut stem with the coconut tree mark painted in tar on the side near the top, shall be planted firmly so that a length of at least one metre may be buried under the ground and a length of above 50 cm. may be visible above high water level.
      3. In exceptional cases, where survey marks of the prescribed quality and dimensions cannot be obtained at reasonable cost, the Director of Survey and Land Records shall for reasons to be recorded in writing suitable survey marks.
    2. Service of Notice

All notices and communications required under the Act shall be in writing. When the registered holder or other person on whom any of the notices or communications under the Act have to be served is not available, service may be effected by delivering the notice or communication to some adult member of his family at his usual place or residence or to his authorized agent or by affixing it in some conspicuous part of his last known residence or on some conspicuous part of the land to which the notice or communication relates. When service is effected by so affixing the notice, the serving officer shall note the method of service on the form of acknowledgement which is returned to the officer issuing the notice or communication.

    1. Maintainable survey marks
      1. The maintainable survey mark shall be the following.
        1. All theodolite stations
        2. Survey marks at the junction of survey fields, end of; G’ lines, or base lines and in the case of Government land bends also on subdivision boundaries. (G.O (P) 1568/75/RD, dated 24th November 1975).
      2. A survey mark shall be deemed to require repairs:
        1. When it is out of the ground, or is buried less than 2/3 of its length or is completely under the surface of the ground.
        2. When it is out of its correct position
        3. When it is covered with vegetation.
    2. Inspection of survey marks

Any Survey Officer shall be competent to inspect all the maintainable survey marks. When a survey mark is found to require renewal or repair, the Survey Officer shall issue notice under sub-section (2) of section 15 in Form No.1 to the concerned registered holder.

    1. Report of the Village Official about damaged survey marks

The report of the village official under sub-section (b) of section 17 shall be made to the Taluk Surveyor or the Revenue Inspector by an entry in an inspection register and extract of which should be submitted periodically.

    1. Renewal and repair on failure of registered holder

If the registered holder of any land fails to carry out the repairs or renewal within the period specified in the notice, any officer empowered under the Act within whose jurisdiction the land lies shall renew or repair the survey marks at Government cost, which will be recovered later from the registered holder of the land in the manner specified in rule 17.

    1. Cost of renewal and repair of survey marks

The cost of renewing a missing stone or repairing a stone shall be according to sub –rule (b) to (d) of rule 85.

    1. Apportionment of cost

The cost of the renewal or repair of each survey mark shall be apportioned as laid down in rule 85 (e).

    1. Maintenance of survey marks on the boundary between Government lands and Registered land

In the case of a survey mark on the boundary between Government lands and registered lands, the registered holders or owners of registered lands touching the survey mark shall be responsible for the maintenance of the survey marks on the boundary.

    1. Orders under section 15 (1) to be communicated by the Tahsildar

Orders passed under sub section (1) of section 15 imposing charges for renewal or repair of survey marks shall be communicated to the registered holder in Form No.2. Where officers other than Tahsildars concerned pass orders, such communication shall be made through the Tahsildars concerned. For this purpose the notice shall be prepared in duplicate and the Tahsildars shall after serving the notice on the registered holder, return the original to the officer issuing the notice.

    1. Recovery of charges for renewal or repair of survey marks

If no appeal has been preferred or if an appeal has been preferred after orders are passed on that appeal, the authority concerned shall issue a notice to the registered holder in Form No.3 for the recovery of charges for renewal or repair of survey marks through the Tahsildar of the taluk in which the land is situate. For this purpose the notice shall be prepared in duplicate and the Tahsildar shall after serving the notice return the original to the officer issuing it. Another copy of the notice shall also be sent by the officer issuing it to the Tahsildar who shall take steps for the recovery of the amount after serving the notice as aforesaid.

    1. Verification and maintenance of /State boundaries forming boundaries of forests
      1. Whenever the State boundary forms the boundary of Reserve Forest, or private forest, the divisional Forest Officer, within whose jurisdiction the Reserve Forest or Private forest is situated, shall be responsible for periodical joint inspection of such boundary with representatives of the bordering states.
      2. The notes of joint inspection with illustrative sketches showing the position of survey marks inspected, shall be forwarded to the collector of the district with copy to the Assistant Director of Survey and land Records having jurisdiction. The Collector shall make arrangements for attending to the repair or renewal of the survey marks jointly with the authorities of the neighboring states after the estimates are not approved by the respective Governments.
    2. Verification and maintenance of State boundaries in other cases

In all other portions of the State boundaries, the Tahsildar concerned shall be responsible for periodical joint inspection with the authorities of the neighboring states. The joint inspection report with illustrative sketches should the positions of survey marks inspected, shall be prepared and submitted to the District Collector with estimates necessary for repairs and renewal of survey marks. After the estimates are got shall be attended to by the maintenance staff of the taluk, after observing necessary formalities under the Act.

    1. Charges for the repairs and renewals of the State boundaries

The bill of charges for the repairs and renewals of survey marks on State boundaries shall be submitted to the concerned District Collectors for further action.

    1. Inspection and maintenance of survey marks on lands under the control of the Central Government

The inspection and maintenance of survey marks on the lands under the control of the Central Government shall be attended to jointly by the District Collector or his nominee and a representative of the concerned department of the Central Government.